Java Collections

December 16, 2012

A collection is a object that groups multiple elements into a single unit.

List of core collection Java interfaces.

  • Collection – This interface is the least common denominator that all collections implement and is used to pass collections around and manipulate them where maximum generality is desired.
  • Set – A collection that cannot contain duplicate elements
  • List – A ordered collection that can contain duplicate elements. Elements can be accessed by their integer index.
  • Queue – A collection which orders elements in first-in, first-out manner.
  • Map – An object which maps keys to values. There cannot be duplicate keys.
  • SortedSet – A set that maintains its elements in ascending order.
  • SortedMap – A map that maintains its mappings in ascending order.

Ways to traverse a collection.

  • for-each
for (Object o : collection)
  • Iterators – It enables to traverse a collection and to remove elements selectively. Iterator.remove is the only safe way to modify a collection during iteration
static void filter(Collection<?> c) {
    for (Iterator<?> it = c.iterator(); it.hasNext(); )
        if (!cond(

toArray method – translates collection to array.

Object[] a = c.toArray();
String[] a = c.toArray(new String[0]);

Set Implementations.

  • HashSet – Stores elements in hash table. Good performance, but makes no guarantee about order.
  • TreeSet – Stores elements in red-black tree, orders elements by values, slower than HashSet. SortedSet implementation.
  • LinkedHashSet – Implements a hash table with a linked list running through it, orders elements based on the order in which they were inserted.

List Implementations.

  • ArrayList – provides constant time positional access and is fast
  • LinkedList – offers better performance under certain circumstances. If you add elements to beginning of list or iterate over the list to delete elements.

Map Implementations.

  • HashMap – Provides maximum speed, but not ordered.
  • TreeMap – Ordered by the keys. SortedMap implementation.
  • LinkedHashMap – Provides intermediate performance of the above two implementation. Ordered by insertion.



REST Principles

December 13, 2012

REST stands for Representational State Transfer

5 key principles of REST are –

  • Give everything a ID


  • Link things together

Links help to refer to identifiable things

  • Use standard methods

GET- To retrieve a representation. Its idempotent, meaning that has no additional effect if it is called more than once with the same input parameters
PUT – update this resource with this data, or create it at this URI if it’s not there already. Its idempotent.
DELETE – delete a resource. Its idempotent.
POST – create a new resource. Its not idempotent.

  • Resources with multiple representations

Provide multiple representations of resources for different needs.

  • Communicate statelessly

A server should not have to retain some sort of communication state for any of the clients it communicates with beyond a single request. The most obvious reason for this is scalability — the number of clients interacting would seriously impact the server’s footprint if it had to keep client state.

Javascript Object oriented programming

August 22, 2012
  • JavaScript is a prototype-based language which contains no class statement. Instead JavaScript uses functions as classes. Defining a class is as easy as defining a function.
  • An object constructor/object constructor function is a function that’s used to define a new object. In this function, we declare the initial properties/methods of the new object, and usually assign them a pre-defined value.
  • To create an instance of an object, we use the keyword “new”, followed by an object constructor. We can either use JavaScript’s built-in constructors to create a native object, or we can build our own constructors to create a user-defined object.
  • Every object method has a variable – this – which refers to the current instance of that object from which the method is called.


     function Computer(name) {
          this.getName=function() {

     var computer1 = new Computer("Desktop-1");
     alert(computer1.getName());//alerts Desktop-1
     var computer2 = new Computer("Desktop-2");
     alert(computer2.getName());//alerts Desktop-2


Javascript Closures

August 17, 2012

A closure is a special kind of object that combines two things: a function, and the environment in which that function was created. The environment consists of any local variables that were in-scope at the time that the closure was created.

Javascript Module Pattern

August 8, 2012

Module Pattern – It stays out of the global namespace, provides publicly addressable API methods, and supports protected or “private” data and methods along the way.

javascript void(0) for HTML link

May 27, 2012

To create a HTML link which does nothing when user clicks it,  use  like below

<A HREF="javascript:void(0)">Click here to do nothing</A>

When the user clicks the link, void(0) evaluates to undefined, which has no effect in JavaScript.

References –

Here is a link, which answers why  void(0)  is better than using #  for this requirement

Referencing variables in setTimeout function – Javascript Closures

May 26, 2012


– Reference For loop variable i  in setTimeout function

Wrong way

for(var i = 1 ; i <= 10; i++) {
console.log('i in for :: ' + i);
setTimeout(function() {
console.log(' i in timeout :: ' + i);
}, 2000);


i in for :: 1
i in for :: 2
i in for :: 3
i in for :: 4
i in for :: 5
i in for :: 6
i in for :: 7
i in for :: 8
i in for :: 9
i in for :: 10
i in timeout :: 11
i in timeout :: 11
i in timeout :: 11
i in timeout :: 11
i in timeout :: 11
i in timeout :: 11
i in timeout :: 11
i in timeout :: 11
i in timeout :: 11
i in timeout :: 11

Right way using Closures

for(var i = 1 ; i <= 10; i++) {
console.log('i in for :: ' + i);
setTimeout(function(j) {
return function() {
console.log(' j in timeout :: ' + j);
}(i), 2000);


i in for :: 1
i in for :: 2
i in for :: 3
i in for :: 4
i in for :: 5
i in for :: 6
i in for :: 7
i in for :: 8
i in for :: 9
i in for :: 10
j in timeout :: 1
j in timeout :: 2
j in timeout :: 3
j in timeout :: 4
j in timeout :: 5
j in timeout :: 6
j in timeout :: 7
j in timeout :: 8
j in timeout :: 9
j in timeout :: 10

References  –