JavaScript binding, function apply, function call

December 28, 2012

In JavaScript, binding is always explicit, and can be easily lost, so a method using “this” will not refer to the proper object in all situations,  unless you force it to.

JavaScript provides two options to do explicit binding “apply” and “call”.


Every JavaScript function is equipped with “apply” method that allows you to call the function with specific binding. I takes two arguments, the binding object and an array of arguments to be passed to the function.

fun.apply(thisArg[, argsArray])


“Call” method is similar to “apply”, but it takes the arguments themselves not an array.[, arg1[, arg2[, ...]]])



JavaScript event delegation

December 27, 2012

JavaScript event delegation is a simple technique by which you add a single event handler to a parent element in order to avoid having to add event handlers to multiple child elements.

Event capturing

Netscape defined an approach called event capturing, where events occur on the highest object in the DOM tree and then work down to the deepest element affected by the event.

Event bubbling

IE defined event bubbling. The deepest element affected by the event should receive the event first , then its parent, etc., until the document object finally receives the event.

W3C DOM level 2 events specification defines both event bubbling and capturing. First the document receives the event, then the capturing phase commences to the most specific element affected by the event. Once the event is handled by the element, it bubbles back up to the document.


  • Less event handlers to setup and reside in memory.
  • No need to re-attach handlers after a DOM update.

JavaScript private public privileged access

December 26, 2012


The members of an object are all public members. There are two ways for putting members in a new object.

In Constructor

function Container(param) {
    this.member = param;

In the prototype

This technique is used to add public methods.

Container.prototype.stamp = function (string) {
    return this.member + string;

Private members are made by the constructor. Ordinary vars and parameters of the constructor become the private members.

function Container(param) {
    this.member = param;
    var secret = 3;
    var that = this;


A privileged method is able to access private methods, variables and is itself accessible to the public method and the outside.  Privileged methods are assigned with “this” within the constructor.

function Container(param) {
    this.member = param;

    this.service = function () {
        return this.member;

JavaScript function declaration, function expression, Function constructor, Anonymous function

December 25, 2012

Function declaration –

function name([param[, param[, ... param]]]) {
example -
function sum(a, b)
    return a + b;

name – The function name

param – The name of the argument to be passed to the function. A function can have up to 255 arguments.

statements – The body of the function

Function expression and Anonymous function –

function [name]([param] [, param] [..., param]) {
example -
var sum = function(a, b) { return a + b; }

The name can be omitted in which case it becomes anonymous function.
Anonymous functions can help make code more concise when declaring a function that will only be used in one place.

Function constructor –

Function objects can be created with new operator

new Function (arg1, arg2, ... argN, functionBody)

example - 
var sum = new Function('a','b', 'return a + b;');

arg1, arg2, … argN – zero or more names to be used by the function as argument names

functionBody – A string containing JavaScript statements forming the function body.



Object Oriented Programming

December 19, 2012


Object is an instance of a class.  All objects have a state and behavior.


Class is the blueprint from which individual objects are created


Object-oriented programming allows classes to inherit commonly used state and behavior from other classes. In Java programming language, each class is allowed to have one direct superclass, and each superclass has the potential for an unlimited number of subclasses.


Methods form the object’s interface with the outside world. An interface is a group of related methods with empty bodies.  Interface separates implementation and defines the structure. It is useful when the implementation changes frequently.  Interface forms a contract between the class and the outside world.

Abstract Class

Abstract classes cannot be instantiated.  It can only be used as a super class for other classes that extend the abstract class.  Abstract classes are declared with keyword abstract.  Abstract class methods can have implementations. Abstract class’s methods can’t have implementation only when declared abstract.


Encapsulation is inclusion within a program object of all the resources needed for the object to function.  It allows class to change its internal implementation without hurting the overall functioning of the system.


Polymorphism is the ability to request that the same operations be performed by a wide range of different types of things.

Method overloading

Ability to define several methods all with the same name

Method overridding

Subclass overrides a specific implementation of a method that is already provided by one of its super classes.


JavaScript arguments, prototype, constructor, inheritance

December 16, 2012


In every JavaScript function a private variable argument is automatically created, holding array of the arguments passed to the function.


Every object has a special property, prototype. This property allows you to add properties/methods to all objects created from that object constructor. The prototype object loads before the object constructor does anything. Therefore by using prototype we can add properties, methods to both native objects and user-defined objects.


Every instance of an object has a constructor property. It returns the Function object that created that instance of the object.


The prototype property is an object with no initial properties/methods. When we add properties/methods to this object, we automatically add them to all instances of the object. However, instead of adding properties/methods to the prototype object, we could replace the prototype object with an object that already has the properties/methods we want.


Java Collections

December 16, 2012

A collection is a object that groups multiple elements into a single unit.

List of core collection Java interfaces.

  • Collection – This interface is the least common denominator that all collections implement and is used to pass collections around and manipulate them where maximum generality is desired.
  • Set – A collection that cannot contain duplicate elements
  • List – A ordered collection that can contain duplicate elements. Elements can be accessed by their integer index.
  • Queue – A collection which orders elements in first-in, first-out manner.
  • Map – An object which maps keys to values. There cannot be duplicate keys.
  • SortedSet – A set that maintains its elements in ascending order.
  • SortedMap – A map that maintains its mappings in ascending order.

Ways to traverse a collection.

  • for-each
for (Object o : collection)
  • Iterators – It enables to traverse a collection and to remove elements selectively. Iterator.remove is the only safe way to modify a collection during iteration
static void filter(Collection<?> c) {
    for (Iterator<?> it = c.iterator(); it.hasNext(); )
        if (!cond(

toArray method – translates collection to array.

Object[] a = c.toArray();
String[] a = c.toArray(new String[0]);

Set Implementations.

  • HashSet – Stores elements in hash table. Good performance, but makes no guarantee about order.
  • TreeSet – Stores elements in red-black tree, orders elements by values, slower than HashSet. SortedSet implementation.
  • LinkedHashSet – Implements a hash table with a linked list running through it, orders elements based on the order in which they were inserted.

List Implementations.

  • ArrayList – provides constant time positional access and is fast
  • LinkedList – offers better performance under certain circumstances. If you add elements to beginning of list or iterate over the list to delete elements.

Map Implementations.

  • HashMap – Provides maximum speed, but not ordered.
  • TreeMap – Ordered by the keys. SortedMap implementation.
  • LinkedHashMap – Provides intermediate performance of the above two implementation. Ordered by insertion.